The Pilgrims Guide

The Pilgrims Guide

Hajj is one of the best forms of worship and is one of the most sublime deeds because it is one of the pillars of Islam that Allah sent Muhammad (pbuh) with. A servant's religion is incomplete without it.

 

The Pilgrims Guide

Hajj is one of the best forms of worship and is one of the most sublime deeds because it is one of the pillars of Islam that Allah sent Muhammad (pbuh) with. A servant's religion is incomplete without it.

A Synopsis of what the Pilgrim ought to do during the Days of Pilgrimage according to his/ her Ritual (Nusuk)*

 

Before The 8th Day of Thul-Hijja  

A Pilgrim Who Performs Pilgrimage Only (Ifrad)*

1.       Enters into the state of consecration from the appointed station (Miqat)* and says the devotional supplications (Labaika Hajjan.) Residents and people of Makkah do not enter into the state of consecration from Miqat, but from their homes in Makkah.

2.       Performs the arrival circumambulation (Tawaf.)*

3.      Performs traversing (Sa’ee)*: if one does not traverse after circumambulating the K’abah, or if one goes to Mina immediately, one has to perform traversing after doing the proceeding circumambulation and remain in the state of consecration until the Day of Immolation (Nahir)*

 

8th Day

Proceeds to Mina and performs five shortened (qassr)* prayers there without combining them (jam’a.)

 

 Before The 8th Day of Thul-Hijja

      A Pilgrim Who Integrates pilgrimage and Umrah (Qiran)*

1.       Enters into the state of consecration from the appointed station (Miqat) and says the devotional supplications (Labaika Umratan wa Hajjan.)

2.       Performs the arrival circumambulation.

3.      Performs traversing: it is permissible to delay it until one finishes doing the proceeding circumambulation. (one who is in the state of consecration remains in such state and should avoid the consecration’s forbidden acts until the Day of Immolation.)

8th Day

Proceeds to Mina and performs five shortened (qassr)* prayers there without combining them (jam’a.)

 

 Before The 8th Day of Thul-Hijja 

      A Pilgrim Who Does the Umrah-Pilgrimage Combination (Tamat’u)*

1.       Enters into the state of consecration from the appointed station (Miqat) and says the devotional supplication (Labaika Umratan mutamatian biha ila AlHajj.)

2.       Performs the arrival circumambulation (for Umrah.)

3.       Performs traversing.

4.       Shaves or shortens one’s hair.

5.      Terminates consecration (Tahalul)*, remains in this state until the Day of Tarwiah (the 8th day of Thul-Hijjah.)

 

8th Day  

Proceeds to Mina – after entering into the state of consecration from the place one resides in and performs five shortened (qassr) prayers there without combining them (jam’a.)

 

9th Day          

1.       Proceeds to Arafah after sunrise [prays there the Midday (Thuhur) and the Late- Afternoon (Assr) prayers shortened and combined (an earlier combination), at the time of the (Thuhur) proclaiming the prayer (Athan)* once and calling out (Iqamah)* twice – It is recommended for the pilgrims to read the Qur’an, supplicate, remember Allah, and do (Thikr)* in this great Day of Arafah. It is Sunnah to raise both hands and to face the Holy K’abah (Qibla)* not the mountain, while making supplication as Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) did. Fasting this Day of Arafah is abhorred for the pilgrim. Arafah Valley is not part of Arafah area, thus standing there is illegitimate – but one is not required to climb up the Mountain of Arafah.

2.       Proceeds to Muzudalifah just after sunset.

3.       Prays the Sunset (Magrib), and the Evening (Isha) prayers shortened and combined (a delayed combination) proclaiming the prayer (Athan) once and calling out (Iqamah) twice when arriving at Muzdalifah (even if one arrives late.)

4.       Picks up seven pebbles in order to lapidate the big Satan post and if one picks up the pebbles from Mina, it is permissible (every pebble is like the pea grain in size.)

5.      Spends the night in Muzdalifah and prays the Dawn prayer (Fajr) very early and increases    supplication and remembrance of Allah (Thikr.) After prayer, it is preferred to stand at the Sacred Mountain (Al-Mashaar Al-Harram) and increase supplication until (Isfar), which is the twilight of the day and before sunrise. Weak people are permitted to proceed to Mina after midnight (after the moon disappears.)

 

10th Day

A Pilgrim Who Performs Pilgrimage Only (Ifrad)*

Proceeds to Mina (before sunrise)

1.       Lapidates the big Satan post with seven pebbles saying (Allahu Akbar) with every pebble.

2.       Men shave off or shorten their hair. Women cut as long as the tip of the finger from the end of their hair.

3.       Finish consecration and wear clothes (the minor absolve from consecration (Tahalul Asghar).

4.       Does the proceeding circumambulation (the major absolve from the consecration (Tahalul Akbar) which is a pillar of Hajj. It is permissible to delay the proceeding circumambulation until the 11th or the 12th day or with the farewell circumambulation.

5.      Does traversing after the proceeding circumambulation if not done before. 

      

A Pilgrim Who Integrates pilgrimage and Umrah (Qiran)*

Proceeds to Mina (before sunrise)

1.       Lapidates the big Satan post saying (Allahu Akbar) with every pebble.

2.       Sacrifices an animal. However the residents of the Sacred Place (Al-Haram) do not have to offer sacrifice.

3.       Shaves off or shortens one’s hair. Women cut as long as the tip of the finger from the end of their hair.

4.       Finishes consecration and wears clothes.

5.       Does the proceeding circumambulation (a pillar of Hajj), and performs traversing if not done before. 

 

A Pilgrim Who Does the Umrah-Pilgrimage Combination (Tamat’u)*

Proceeds to Mina (before sunrise)

1.       Lapidates the big Satan post saying (Allahu Akbar) with every pebble.

2.       Sacrifices an animal. The time of slaughtering continues until the sunset of the 13th day, but residents of the Sacred Place (Al – Haram) do not have to offer a sacrifices.

     3.       Men shave off or shorten their hair. Women cut as long as the tip of the finger from the end of their hair.

     4.       Finishes consecration and wears clothes.

     5.       Does the proceeding circumambulation (a pillar of Hajj.)

6.       Performs traversing (a pillar of Hajj), and it is permissible to delay both (5+6) until the next day or the day after or with the farewell circumambulation.

11th Day

1. The pilgrim should spend the 11th night in Mina (for the three nusuks).

 2. Then performs the lapidation of the three Satan posts in the afternoon starting with the small, the middle then the big Satan posts (seven pebbles for each) saying (Allahu Akbar) with every pebble and making supplication after the small and the middle posts.

12th Day

1. The pilgrim should spend the 12th night in Mina (for the three nusuks).

2. Then perform the lapidation of the three Satan posts in the afternoon starting with the small, then the middle then the big Satan posts (seven pebbles for each) saying (Allahu Akbar) with every pebble and making supplication after the small and the middle posts, and it is permissible to finalize one’s pilgrimage and leave early by leaving from Mina towards Makkah before sunset and perform the farewell circumambulation. But if one wants to delay then one should read the next item. 

13th Day  

      1.  Performs the three lapidations in the afternoon starting with the small, the mid and then the big Satan posts (seven pebbles for each) saying (Allahu Akbar) with every pebble and making supplication after the small and the middle posts.

       2. Leaves Mina for Makkah and performs the farewell circumambulation which is compulsory, whoever does not do the farewell circumambulation should offer a sacrifice except for a woman who is in her menstrual course, and a woman who is in the state of after-birth blood discharge. Then the pilgrim is free to leave Makkah

Note: After doing the minor absolve (Tahalul Asghar), everything becomes permissible for the pilgrim except having sexual intercourse. But after doing the proceeding circumambulation (the major absolve from consecration), everything becomes permissible including sexual intercourse if one had already performed traversing in the case of performing Pilgrimage (Ifrad) and in integrating Pilgrimage and Umrah (Qiran), but in the Umrah-Pilgrimage combination (Tamat’u) it is necessary to traverse before the major absolve from Ihram.

Remember: The pilgrimage days are days of supplication and recitation of the Holy Qur’an, thus make use of your time in doing good deeds. Avoid entering into arguments and vain talk, Allah states: “So whoever intends to perform Hajj (therein assuming Ihram), then he should not have sexual relations, nor commit sin, nor dispute unjustly during the Hajj.” [1:197]

 

The four pillars of Pilgrimage are:

  1. The intention of entering into the state of consecration (Ihram): which is the intention of entering into ritual (Nusuk.)
  2. Standing in Arafah until sunset.
  3. Circumambulation “the proceeding circumambulation.”
  4. Traversing between Assafa and Almarwah.

Note: To make sure the Pilgrimage is valid, all of the above four pillars should be observed.

 

Obligation of Pilgrimage:

  1. The intention of entering into the state of consecration from the appointed station (Miqat.)
  2. Standing in Arafah until sunset.
  3. Spending the night of Immolation in Muzdalifah.
  4. Spending all three nights following the Day of Immolation (days of Attashreeq)* in Mina.
  5. Performing lapidation.
  6. Shaving off or shortening one’s hair.
  7. Performing the farewell circumambulation.

Note: The pilgrim who leaves any of these obligations should offer a sacrifice in the Sacred Place (Al-Haram)* and distribute it among the poor people and should not eat anything from it and his Pilgrimage is only then valid.

 

Non – obligatory rituals (Sunan) of Pilgrimage:

  1. Doing the major ablution (Ghusul)* when entering into the state of consecration.
  2. Wearing white garment and a wrap for men when entering into the state of consecration.
  3. Saying the devotional calls (Labbayka Allahumma Labbayk, Labbayk La Shareeka laka labbayk. Inna-alhamda Wan-n’imata Laka walmulk, La Shareek Lak)and raising the voice while saying them.
  4. Spending the night of Arafah in Mina.
  5. Kissing the Black Stone.
  6. Doing Al-Idhibaa (which is putting the wrap under the right armpit while performing the arrival circumambulation or Umrah.
  7. Doing Arraml (which is speeding in the first three rounds of the arrival circumambulation or Umrah.)
  8. Doing the arrival circumambulation for the one who performs Pilgrimage only (Mufrid) or the one who unites Pilgrimage and Umrah (Muqrin.)

 

Forbidden acts of consecration are:

  1. Shaving one’s hair
  2. Nail clipping.
  3. Covering one’s head (with any cover which touches the head except umbrella.)
  4. Wearing sewn clothes (any clothes other than Ihram clothes) for men.
  5. Wearing perfume.

If anyone does any of these five forbidden acts through ignorance or oblivion, he/she does not have to offer mends. However, if one does any of these forbidden things on purpose, it is up to him/her to choose one atonement from the following: ‘fasting three days or feeding six poor people or slaughtering a nanny-goat

  1. hunting a wild prey, or helping to do so, or distributing it, and there is a compensation akin to it when killing it on purpose. For example, if the pilgrim kills a gazelle, a goat is akin to the gazelle so the pilgrim is to choose between three things: a. To slaughter the goat and distribute its meat among the poor people. b. To distribute food among the poor people equal to the goat’s price. c. To fast a day instead of feeding every poor man or woman.
  2. Doing a sexual act (e.g. kissing) but not having full sexual intercourse. If orgasm is reached, one’s pilgrimage is correct provided that one offers a camel as a sacrifice.
  3. Contracting a marriage and there is no compensation in this case.
  4. Having sexual intercourse, if it is before finishing consecration (the minor). Then one’s pilgrimage is nullified and one should continue one’s pilgrimage. It is compulsory to perform one’s pilgrimage the following year, and one should also offer a camel as a sacrifice in the Sacred Place (Al-Haram.) However, if it is after finishing consecration (the minor), then one’s pilgrimage is valid and he should offer a nanny-goat as a sacrifice.

The offered Immolation (Hady)*:

Slaughtering place: Mina, and it can be done in Makkah or in the rest of the Sacred Place (Alharam).

Its kind: Camel, cow, sheep, or goat.

The permissible age of the animal: Sheep which has consummated six months, goat which has consummated one year, cow which has consummated two years, and of the camels the one which has consummated five years. One sheep or one goat for one person is enough. One camel or one cow is enough for seven people.

- One who cannot find an animal to sacrifice, or cannot afford its price, can fast three days during the pilgrimage and seven days when one returns home. One may fast all the seven days consequently or separately.

Defects that should be avoided in the immolation: The one-eyed animal, the lame animal, the ill animal (if the defect is clear and obvious in any of these three cases), and the weak that cannot be treated. Also to be avoided is the animal which lost its horn and/or the ear which is known as (Adab.)

*Nusuk: i.e. Ihram, circumambulation (Tawaf) of the K’abah and traversing (Saee) between (assafa and Almarwah), stay at Arafat, Muzdalifah and Mina; lapidation (Ramy) of Jamrat (stoning of the specified pillars in Mina) slaughtering of hady (animal).

 * Ifrad: (Pilgrimage only): The pilgrim enters into the state of consecration from Miqat (the assigned place) with the intention of performing Hajj only. The pilgrim says his/her devotional calls (Talbyah): (Labayk Hajjan) and stays in the state of consecration until the Pilgrimage rituals finish.

 * Qiran: (Uniting Pilgrimage and Umrah): The pilgrim enters into the state of consecration from Miqat with the intentionof performing Hajj and Umrah together saying the devotional calls: (Labyak Umratan wa Hajjan). The pilgrim must stay in the state of consecration until finishing the Umrah and Hajj rituals.

* Tamat’u: (Umrah – Pilgrimage (combination): The act of performing Umrah during the months of Hajj which are (Shawwal, Thul-Qidah and the first 10 days of Thul-Hijjah). The pilgrim enters into the state of consecration with the intention of performing Umrah only by saying his/her devotional calls: (Labyaka Umratan Mutamatian biha ila al Hajj). The pilgrim must stay in the state of consecration until arriving at Makkah and performing (Tawaf) and (Saee), saving or trimming one’s hair and finishing one’s Ihram. The pilgrim wears his/her normal clothes and resumes his/her normal life. On the day of Tarwiah (the 8thday), the pilgrim enters into the state of consecration again from Makkah.

*Miqat: An assigned place where Muslims intending to perform Pilgrimage or Umrah take off their ordinary clothes and put on pilgrim grab (Ihram).

 *Tawaf: When a Muslim arrives at Makkah, he/she should make Tawaf by circling the K’abah seven times in the counterclockwise direction, starting from the Black Stone with Takbeer (Allahu Akbar) and ending each circle at the Black stone with Takbeer (Allahu Akbar), keeping the K’abah to one’s left. Tawaf is done as a gesture of greeting Al_ Masjid Al-Haraam.

 * Sa’ee: The pilgrim starts Saee by ascending the Safa. While facing the K’abah he/she praises Allah, raises his/her hands and say Takbeer (Allahu Akbar) three times, then he/she makes supplication to Allah. The pilgrim descends from the Safa and heads toward the Marwah. One should increase the pace between the clearly marked green posts, but should walk at a normal pace before and after them. When the pilgrim reaches the Marwah, he/she should ascend it, praise Allah and to do as he/she did at the Safa. This is one round, and a total of seven rounds are required to perform the Saee.

* Nahir: On the day of Immolation and after performing lapidation, the pilgrim slaughters his/her sacrifice either personally or through the appointment of somebody else to do it on his /her behalf.

 * Tahalul: After performing Saee, the pilgrim ends his/her Umrah rites by shaving his head or trimmimg his hair ( woman should cut a finger a finger tip length from her hair). By then, the prohibitions pertaining to the state of Ihram are liftee and one can resume his/her normal life.

 * Athan: The call to prayer. The Muslims make ablution and go th the mosques when they hearit.

 *Iqamah: The call to start performing  prayer and the prayer leader (Imam) will lead the Muslims in a congregational prayer.

*Thikr: Glorifying Allah the Greatest and mentioning Him.

* Qiblah: is the direction towards the Holy K’abah; the place towards which Muslims turn their faces in prayers, namely the Holy Mosque in Makkah

 * The minor absolve: After performimg lapidation on the day of Immolation and shaving or trimming one’s hair, the pilgrim ends the restrictions of Ihram except for sexual intercourse. This is called the minor absolve.

 * The major absolve: After performing Tawaf Al-Ifadah (the proceeding circumambulation), the state of Ihram is completely ended and all restrictions are lifted including sexual intercourse. This is known as the major absolve.

 *Attashreeq: The days of Attashreeq are (the 11th, 12th, and the 13th days of Thul-Hijjah.)

*Ghusul: (the major ablution): Cleaning the whole body starting with one’s head.

 *Hady: The pilgrim should slaughter a sheep, or share a cow or a camel with six other pilgrims.

Source: The Pilgrims Guide